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Clear(diamond) & Black(Graphite)
2 well-known Allotropes of Carbon.
Atomic Number : 6
Symbol : C
Atomic Weight :
Discovery : Carbon exists free in nature and has been known since prehistoric time.
Electron Configuration : [He]2s22p2
Word Origin : Latin carbo, German Kohlenstoff, French carbone: coal or charcoal
Isotopes : There are seven natural isotopes of carbon. In 1961 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted the isotope carbon-12 as the basis for atomic weights.
Properties : Carbon is found free in nature in three allotropic forms: amorphous (lampblack, boneblack), graphite, and diamond. A fourth form, 'white' carbon, is thought to exist. Diamond is one of the hardest substances, with a high melting point and index of refraction.
Uses : Carbon forms numerous and varied compounds with limitless applications. Many thousands of carbon compounds are integral to life processes. Diamond is prized as a gemstone and is used for cutting, drilling, and as bearings. Graphite is used as a crucible for melting metals, in pencils, for rust protection, for lubrication, and as a moderator for slowing neutrons for atomic fission. Amorphous carbon is used for removing tastes and odors.

Element Classification : Non-Metal

Density (g/cc) : 2.25 (graphite)

Melting Point (K) : 3820

Boiling Point (K) : 5100

Appearance : dense, black (carbon black)

Atomic Volume (cc/mol) : 5.3

Ionic Radius :16 (+4e) 260 (-4e)

Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol) : 0.711

Debye Temperature (°K): 1860.00

Pauling Negativity Number : 2.55

First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol) : 1085.7

Oxidation States : 4, 2, -4

Lattice Structure : Diagonal

Lattice Constant (Å) : 3.570

Crystal Structure : hexagonal

Electronegativity : 2.55 (Pauling scale)

Atomic Radius : 70 pm

Atomic Radius (calc.) : 67 pm

Covalent Radius : 77 pm

Van der Waals Radius : 170 pm

Magnetic Ordering : diamagnetic

Thermal Conductivity (300 K) (graphite) : (119–165) W·m−1·K−1

Thermal Conductivity (300 K) (diamond) : (900–2320) W·m−1·K−1

Thermal Diffusivity (300 K) (diamond) : (503–1300) mm²/s

Mohs Hardness (graphite) : 1-2

Mohs Hardness (diamond) : 10.0

CAS Registry Number : 7440-44-0

┗▶10-facts about Carbon

★ Carbon is the basis for organic chemistry, as it occurs in all living organisms.

★ Carbon is a nonmetal that can bond with itself and many other chemical elements, forming nearly ten million compounds.

★ Elemental carbon can take the form of one of the hardest substances (diamond) or one of the softest (graphite).

★ Carbon is made in the interiors of stars, though it was not produced in the Big Bang.

★ Carbon compounds have limitless uses. In its elemental form, diamond is a gemstone and used for drilling/cutting; graphite is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and to protect against rust; while charcoal is used to remove toxins, tastes, and odors. The isotope Carbon-14 is used in radiocarbon dating.

★ Carbon has the highest melting/sublimation point of the elements. The melting point of diamond is ~3550°C, with the sublimation point of carbon around 3800°C.

★ Pure carbon exists free in nature and has been known since prehistoric time.

★ The origin of the name 'carbon' comes from the Latin word carbo, for charcoal. The German and French words for charcoal are similar.

★ Pure carbon is considered non-toxic, although inhalation of fine particles, such as soot, can damage lung tissue.

★ Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe (hydrogen, helium, and oxygen are found in higher amounts, by mass).

┗▶ The Human body has enough Carbon to fill 1,000 pencils.

► An Informative Page ◄

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